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Monday, September 26, 2011

Kalmar Sweden Kalmar Sverige Castle Slott Pictures



Kalmar Castle Kalmar Slott Sweden

Kalmar Castle Kalmar Slott Sweden
Kalmar Castle Kalmar Slott Sweden

Kalmar Castle Kalmar Slott Sweden

Kalmar Castle Kalmar Slott Sweden
Kalmar Castle Kalmar Slott Sweden
Kalmar Castle Kalmar Slott Sweden

Kalmar Castle Kalmar Slott Sweden
Kalmar Castle Kalmar Slott Sweden
Interior

Kalmar Castle Kalmar Slott Swede
Chapel
Kalmar Castle Kalmar Slott Sweden
Interior

Kalmar Castle Kalmar Slott Sweden

Kalmar Castle Kalmar Slott Sweden

Kalmar Castle Kalmar Slott Sweden

Kalmar


Kalmar is a city in Småland in the south-east of Sweden, situated by the Baltic Sea. It had
36,392 inhabitants in 2010[1] and is the seat of Kalmar Municipality. It is also the capital of
Kalmar County, which comprises 12 municipalities with a total of 233,090 inhabitants (2011).
From the thirteenth to the seventeenth centuries, Kalmar was one of Sweden's most
 important cities. Between 1602 and 1913 it was the episcopal see of Kalmar Diocese,
with a bishop, and the Kalmar Cathedral from 1702 is still a fine example of classicistic
architecture. It became a fortified city, with the still mighty Kalmar Castle as the center.
After the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, Kalmar's importance diminished, until the industry
sector was initiated in the 19th century. The city is home to parts of Linnaeus University.
Geographically Kalmar is the main route to the island of Öland thanks to the Öland Bridge.

Contents

  [hide


History

The area around Kalmar has been inhabited since ancient times. Diggings have 

found traces ofstone age gravefields. The oldest sources of there being a town
are however from the 11th century. According to a medieval folk tale, the Norwegian
 patron Saint Olav had his ships moved to Kalmar. The oldest city seal of Kalma
r is from somewhere between 1255–1267, making it the oldest known city seal
 in Scandinavia.
In the 12th century the first foundations of a castle were established, with the
 construction of a round tower for guard and lookout. The tower was continuously
 expanded on in 13th century, and as such, Queen Margaret called an assembly
 there between head of states of Sweden and Norway, and on July 13, 1397,
the Kalmar Union treaty was signed, which would last until 1523. Kalmar's
strategic location, near the Danish border (at the time the Scanian lands, i.e.
the provinces ofBlekingeHalland and Scania, were part of Denmark), and its
harbour and merchancy, also involved it into several feuds. There are two events
independently labelled Kalmar bloodbath: The first in 1505, when King John 
of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden let execute the mayor and city council of
Kalmar; the second in 1599 by command of Duke Charles, later to became
King Charles IX of Sweden.

In the 1540s, first King Gustav Vasa,
and later his sons Erik XIV of Sweden
 and John III of Sweden would organize
 a rebuilding of the castle into the
magnificent Renaissance castle it is today.
Kalmar became a diocese in 1602, a
position it held until 1903. In 1634,
Kalmar Countywas founded, with Kalmar as the natural capital. In 1660,
the Kalmar Cathedral was begun by drawings of Nicodemus Tessin the 
Elder. It would be inaugurated in 1703.
In 1611-1613, it suffered in the Kalmar War, which began with a Danish
siege of Kalmar Castle. 1611 is mentioned as the darkest year of Kalmar's
 history, but by no means the only dark year; much blood has been shed
in the vicinity of the castle. The last was during the Scanian War in the
1670s, leading its sieges to a total of 22—yet, the castle was never taken.
After the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658, the strategical importance of Kalmar
gradually diminished as the borders were drawn to a southern latitude. In
1689, the King established his main naval base south in Karlskrona and
Kalmar lost its status as one of Sweden's main military outposts.

[edit]Kalmar Cathedral

The new city of Kalmar built on Kvarnholmen around the mid-1600s. The
transfer from the old town was largely completed 1658th The new, fortified
 town was planned after the current renaissance ideals. According to this
pattern were placed church and town hall across from each other at a major
 square Stortorget Kalmar. The cathedral was built, designed by Nicodemus
 Tessin the Elder and is one of the foremost examples of barockklassicismens
 breakthrough in Sweden.Kalmar Cathedral drawing series reflects the
complex interaction between the new style, liturgical considerations,
tradition and the fortress-city requirements. The work began in 1660, but it
was interrupted on several occasions, including when the Scanian War (Skånska 
kriget 1675-1679) raged. Construction resumed, and Kalmar Cathedral stood finished in 1703.

Today

In more recent times, Kalmar has been an industrial city with Kalmar 
Verkstad making steam engines, trains and large machinery, later bought
by Bombardier who closed the factory in 2005. A shipyard, Kalmar Varv,
was founded in 1679 and closed 1981. Volvo opened their Kalmar factory
for building cars i.e. 264, 740, 760, 960 in 1974, but closed it 1994 and due to further 
relocation of industry jobs in the 90s and 00s around 2000 industrial jobs were lost. 
Kalmar has a university with over 9,000 students and a research facility for Telia Sonera.
Kalmar has embarked on a comprehensive program to reduce fossil fuel
use. A local trucking firm, which employs nearly 450 people, has installed
computers that track fuel efficiency and have cut diesel use by 10 percent,
paying off the cost of the devices in just a year. The company is now looking
 to fuel its future fleet with biodiesel.[2]
A large wood pulp plant harnesses the steam and hot water it once released
 as waste to provide heating, through below-ground pipes, and generates
enough electricity to power its own operations and 20,000 homes.[2]
Bicycle lanes are common, and cars line up at Kalmar city's public biogas
 pump. Building codes now require thermal insulation and efficient windows
 for new construction or retrofits. Street lights use low-energy sodium bulbs
 and car dealers promote fuel-efficient and hybrid vehicles.[2]
In 2011 Guldfågeln Arena was initiated. It is the new stadium of the football
 team of the city, Kalmar FF. The capacity of the stadium is 12 000 people
 and it is currently one of the newest stadiums in Sweden. The stadium was
 also built to host concerts and did so in the summer of 2011 when Swedish
 artists Håkan Hellström and The Ark performed.












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