Search This Blog

stats

Friday, April 18, 2008

Swedes - world's oldest living tree

Swedes- find world's oldest living tree

Old Tjikko

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Old Tjikko
Old Tjikko is a 9,550-year-old Norway Spruce, located on Fulufjället Mountain of Dalarna province in Sweden. Old Tjikko originally gained notoriety as the "world's oldest tree"[1] but is instead the oldest living clonal Norway Spruce - as there are older clonal trees, while no individual tree reaches Old Tjikko's age.
The age of the tree was determined by carbon dating of genetically matched plant material collected from under the tree, not by dendrochronology, or counting tree rings. The trunk itself is estimated to be only a few hundred years old, but the plant has survived for much longer due to a process known as layering (when a branch comes in contact with the ground, it sprouts a new root), or vegetative cloning (when the trunk dies but the root system is still alive, it may sprout a new trunk).

Discovery and details[edit]


Example of stunted tree exhibiting a krummholzformation
Old Tjikko is estimated to be at least 9,550 years old, making it the world's oldest known individual vegetatively cloned tree. It stands 5 metres (16 ft) tall and is located on Fulufjället Mountain of Dalarna province in Sweden.[2] For thousands of years, the tree appeared in a stunted shrub formation (also known as a krummholz formation) due to the harsh extremes of the environment in which it lives. During the warming of the last century, the tree has sprouted into a normal tree formation. The man who discovered the tree, Leif Kullman (Professor ofPhysical Geography at Umeå University), has attributed this growth spurt to global warming, and given the tree its nickname "Old Tjikko" after his late dog.[2]
The tree has survived for so long due to vegetative cloning. The visible tree is relatively young, but it is part of an older root system which dates back thousands of years. The trunk of the tree may die and regrow multiple times, but the tree's root system remains intact and in turn sprouts another trunk. The trunk may only live for about 600 years, and when one trunk dies another eventually grows back in its place.[3] Also, each winter, heavy snow may push the tree's low-lying branches to ground level, where they take root and survive to grow again the next year[1] in a process known as layering. Layering occurs when a tree's branch comes in contact with the earth, and new roots sprout from the contact point. Other trees, such as coast redwoods and western redcedars are known to reproduce by layering.[4] The tree's age was determined by carbon-14 dating of the root system, which found roots dating back to 375, 5,660, 9,000, and 9,550 years. Carbon dating is not accurate enough to pin down the exact year the tree sprouted from seed, but given the estimated age the tree is supposed to have sprouted around 7550 BC. For comparison, the invention of writing(and thus, the beginning of recorded history) did not occur until around 4000 BC. Researchers have found a cluster of around 20 spruce trees in the same area, all over 8,000 years old.[5][6]
Previous researchers considered the Norway spruce species to be a relative newcomer to Sweden, with theories postulating the tree migrated into the area around 2,000 years ago. Trees much older than 10,000 years would be practically impossible in Sweden, because until around 11,000 years ago the area was in the grip of a world-wide ice age.[3] Nature conservancy authorities are considering putting a fence around the tree to protect it from possible vandals or trophy hunters.[7]

Access[edit]

There is a small path leading up towards the tree. However, it is unmarked, as park rangers do not want to encourage large groups of tourists to surround the tree. A free guided tour can be arranged at the entrance (Naturum) that can take tourists to the tree.[8]
World's oldest tree found

old esttree
It may look unassuming, but this tree is said to be the oldest in the world
This scrawny shrub is what Swedish scientists believe to be the world's oldest tree on record, dating back nearly 10,000 years.
The Spruce tree and was discovered in the Dalarna province of Sweden, where the age was estimated from the trunk upon which the tree grows.
"Spruce trees can multiply with root penetrating branches, meaning they can produce exact copies or clones," says Leif Kullman, Professor of Physical Geography at Umee University.
"Our results have shown that under the crown of this spruce tree on the Fulu Mountain is one of the oldest known trees."
Scientists found four "generations" of spruce remains in the form of cones and wood produced from the highest grounds of the Fulu Mountain.
Previously, pine trees in North America have been cited as the oldest at 4,000 to 5,000-years-old, however the Swedish mountains contain a cluster of around 20 spruces that are over 8,000-years-old.
The age has been tested by carbon dating in a laboratory in Miami, Florida. 


Old Tjikko


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search


Old Tjikko
Old Tjikko is a 9,550 year old Norway Spruce tree, located on Fulufjället Mountain of Dalarna province in Sweden. Old Tjikko is the world's oldest known living individual clonal tree. However, there are many examples of much older clonal colonies (multiple trees connected by a common root system), such as "Pando", estimated to be over 80,000 years old.
The age of the tree was determined by carbon dating of the root system under the tree, not by dendrochronology, or counting tree rings. The trunk itself is estimated to be only a few hundred years old, but the tree as a whole may have survived for much longer due to a process known as layering (when a branch comes in contact with the ground, it sprouts a new root), or vegetative cloning (when the trunk dies but the root system is still alive, it may sprout a new trunk).
The oldest living non-clonal tree, verified by dendrochronology, is 5063 years old as of 2013 (the former record was held by "Methuselah" (4846)). Both trees are Great Basin Bristlecone Pine located in California. Vegetative cloning and reproduction is common in many plants, such as the creosote bush (see "King Clone", estimated from growth rate to be almost 12,000 years old). Many other plants also may take advantage of this process either exclusively or in tandem with sexual reproduction, but dating or estimating the age of these organisms may not be possible without evidence (e.g., old roots, ancient remains, consistent growth rates).

Contents


Discovery and details



Example of stunted tree exhibiting a krummholz formation
Old Tjikko is estimated to be at least 9,550 years old, making it the world's oldest known individual vegetatively cloned tree. It stands 5 metres (16 ft) tall and is located on Fulufjället Mountain of Dalarna province in Sweden.[1] For thousands of years, the tree appeared in a stunted shrub formation (also known as a krummholz formation) due to the harsh extremes of the environment in which it lives. During the warming of the last century, the tree has sprouted into a normal tree formation. The man who discovered the tree, Leif Kullman (Professor of Physical Geography at Umeå University), has attributed this growth spurt to global warming, and given the tree its nickname "Old Tjikko" after his late dog.[1]
The tree has survived for so long due to the cloning process that many trees are able to take advantage of. The visible tree is relatively young, but it is part of an older root system which dates back thousands of years. The trunk of the tree may die and regrow multiple times, but the tree's root system remains intact and in turn sprouts another trunk. The trunk may only live for about 600 years, and when one trunk dies another eventually grows back in its place.[2] Also, each winter, heavy snow may push the tree's low-lying branches to ground level, where they take root and survive to grow again the next year[3] in a process known as layering. Layering occurs when a tree's branch comes in contact with the earth, and new roots sprout from the contact point. Other trees, such as coast redwoods and western redcedars are known to reproduce by layering.[4] The tree's age was determined by carbon-14 dating of the root system, which found roots dating back to 375, 5,660, 9,000, and 9,550 years. Carbon dating is not accurate enough to pin down the exact year the tree sprouted from seed, but given the estimated age the tree is supposed to have sprouted around 7550 BC. For comparison, the invention of writing (and thus, the beginning of recorded history) did not occur until around 4000 BC. Researchers have found a cluster of around 20 spruce trees in the same area, all over 8,000 years old.[5][6]
Previous researchers considered the Norway spruce species to be a relative newcomer to Sweden, with theories postulating the tree migrated into the area around 2,000 years ago. Trees much older than 10,000 years would be practically impossible in Sweden, because until around 11,000 years ago the area was in the grip of a world-wide ice age.[2] Nature conservancy authorities are considering putting a fence around the tree to protect it from possible vandals or trophy hunters.[7]






  • Verdens eldste tre ser ikke så imponerende ut, men det er ikke så rart at det begynner å bli litt pjuskete etter å ha vokst på samme, karrige sted i nesten 10000 år.


    FOTO: LEIF KULLMAN/UMEÅ UNIVERSITET

Verdens eldste tre



Denne pjuskete granen har stått på samme sted i snart 10.000 år. –Det er det eldste treet i verden, så vidt vi vet, sier professor Leif Kullman.


Det finnes oliventrær fra Jesu tid som fortsatt er blant oss. De er veldig gamle, men likevel rene ungdommer sammenlignet med verdens eldste tre. Det vokser ikke i Midtøsten, men under karrige forhold på en fjellvidde i Dalarna, rett over grensen for Trysil. Det er ikke et oliventre, men et grantre.
–Det er det eldste treet som er kartlagt. Stammen er ikke så gammel, de aller eldste granstammene vi har funnet er noe sånt som 600 år, men roten er gammel. Kjempetrærne i California er de eldste stammene vi kjenner til, de kan bli 5000–6000 år gamle. Men granen vår har eldre røtter, fra dem vokser det opp nye, genetisk identiske stammer. De er samme individ, sier Leif Kullman, professor ved universitetet i Umeå i Sverige.
Det var han som fant det eldgamle treet på Fulufjell. Der fant han også flere andre trær som er mer enn 8000 år gamle.

Datering.

Funnet av verdens eldste tre begynte med at Kullman og hans kolleger undersøkte gamle trerester og kongler i jorden under en slags vase av et grantre. En karbon-14-datering viste at de eldste restene var 9550 år gamle.
Da teamet sammenlignet genomet til de døde restene med det levende treet over, ble saken for alvor interessant. De var helt like, de gamle restene i jorden og det levende treet var samme individ.
–Grunnen til at treet har klart å overleve i nesten 10000 år med varierende klima, uten å ha mulighet til å flykte, er granens unike evne til å klone seg selv, forklarer Kullman:
–Den lager sankere. Det vokser ut røtter på de nederste greinene som etablerer seg som egne trær. Disse trærne er genetisk kliss likt modertreet, og dermed pr. definisjon det samme individet. Når klimaet ble kaldere, gikk de nye klonene over fra å ha høyreiste stammer, til å bli lave busker som taklet harde vintre og korte somre bedre. I de siste hundre årene har temperaturen steget igjen, dermed har granen nok en gang skutt opp en rett stamme.
–Det kan være enda eldre trær i Norge. Tidligere har vi trodd at grantrærne innvandret til Skandinavia fra øst. Siden vi ikke har funnet så gamle trær i Finland, er det nå en mulighet for at den kom fra vest, og at de aller eldste trærne finnes i Norge, sier Kullman.
'



Top 10 World’s Oldest Trees

Article by 

The flora of the environment plays an extensive role in our lives ranging from our housing to our medicine. One fourth of the medicines available today owe their existence from plants. We often research to know and study about the ancient civilizations and modernization of the world. But there are few beings who have witnessed these events. The rising of the modern and the sophisticated present world. These are the oldest trees standing still on the grounds for thousands of years. The oldest trees are clonal which results them to stay alive more than normal. Some of the oldest known trees maybe older than the experts think they are. Some have their main trunks rotten away and their age is estimated by their size and rate of growth.
10. Tisbury Yew Tree
The Tisbury Yew Tree is located in Tisbury, England and is estimated to be around 4,000 years old. Though its trunk is quite hollow, it stands in fine foliage and lush greenery with circumference measuring up to 37 feet and limbs considerably large. It is said to be have been planted many generations ago by some Arundel family. With its immense size and flora it is considered to be one of the oldest and greatest in the Kingdom. The late, Mr. Moore, a well-known archaeologist paid much attention on this topic and pronounced the Yew to be the oldest specimen of its species in England. All through the years it has been the center tourist attraction across the world.
9. Sarv-e Abarkuh
Sarv-e Abarkuh
Sarv-e Abarkuh also called the Zoroastrian Sarv, is located in Abarkuh, Yazd, Iran. It is estimated that its age is over 4,000 years. It is protected by the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran as a national natural monument and is a great center of attraction for tourists all over the world with a height of about 25 meters and circumference of 18 meters. It is the third oldest living non-clonal tree in the world as of 2013.

8. Llangernyw Yew
Llangernyw Yew
It is an ancient Yew living in the churchyard of the village of Llangernyw in Conwy County Borough, North Wales. Though it’s core part is lost due to its fragmentation, it’s girth at the ground level measures about 10.15 meters. Determining the age of Yew trees is very difficult but however Llangernyw Yew is believed to be of 4,000 to 5,000 years of age, making it one of the oldest living trees as well non-clonal trees in the world. The tree took root sometime in the prehistoric Bronze Age and is still a thriving, healthy and beautiful growing tree. In the mid-1990s the church oil tank stood in between the two trunks fragments but it was removed later realizing that the tree was a living ancient monument.  
7. Prometheus
prometheus
The name of the tree refers to the mythological figure Prometheus, who stole fire from the Gods and gave it to man. The tree was at least 4,862 years old or even older when it was cut down by a graduate student and United States Forest Service personnel for research purposes. However, they did not know about its record age before cutting it down. Donald Rusk Currey, a researcher designated as WPN-114 and refers to the 114th tree sampled by him for his research in the Nevada’s White Pine Country.  
6. Methuselah
Methuselah
Methuselah is a Great Basin bristlecone pine tree growing high in the White mountains of Inyo Country in eastern California and is 4,844 years of age. It is names after ‘Methuselah’ a Biblical figure having the longest mentioned lifespan in the Bible of 969 years. It grows in a high altitude of 9,500ft to 9,800ft above sea level in the Methuselah Grove. However, Methuselah’s exact location is undisclosed to protect it from Vandalism. It was sampled by Edmund Schulman and Tom Harlan when it was 4,789 years old. It continued to be the oldest known living non-clonal living organism of the world for many years until it was superseded by another pine grove growing in the same area with an age of 5,063 years.  
5. The sisters
sisters
They are also called The Sisters Olive trees of Noah are a grove of sixteen Olive trees located in the Lebanese town of Bcheale. They are probably at least 5,000 years old or maybe 6,000 or even older. They are perhaps the oldest non-clonal living trees in the world. The exact age of each sister is yet to be identified. They have not been determined till date due to the deterioration of the inner tree ring structures over time. The trees still produce olives and are being preserved by George Billing under the auspices of his non-profit organization named Sisters Olive Oil, which also markets the olive oil produced by the olives of the trees. Amazingly, it’s an understatement to say a ‘miracle’ for these trees to grow and live at such a high altitude of 1,311 meters.
4. Old Rasmus
OldRasmus
This tree is proved to have lived for 9,500 years and is located in Hӓrjedalen, Sweden. It is proven by C14 measuring method. It is not the same as Methuselah. Though it is the same organism but it is not the same trunk. Its twigs bend into the earth every winter and new shoots start growing. Amazingly, when Jesus was born 2,009 years ago this tree had been there for 7,500 years.
3. Old Tjikko
Old Tjikko
Old Tjikko is 9,550 years old Norway spruce located on Fulufjӓllet Mountain of Dalarna province in Sweden. It is the oldest known living individual clonal tree. There are much older clonal trees like Pando which consists of many trees connected through a common root system. It stands 16ft tall but for thousands of years, the tree appeared in a stunted shrub formation due to the harsh environment in which it lives. The man who discovered it, Leif Kullman, Professor of Physical Geography at Umeå University has given the tree its nickname “Old Tjikko” after his late dog.
2. Jurupa Oak
Jurupa Oak
The Jurupa Oak is clonal colony of Palmer’s Oak trees located in the Riverside County, Southern California. It is estimated that the oak colony has survived over 13,000 years through clonal reproduction following burning in the wildfires making it one of the oldest plant on earth. It is situated on the top of a small hill in the suburban southern California which a passerby is likely to miss because none of its 70 stems grow more than a few feet tall. Every stem is identical and grows in an oval 25 yards long and 8 yards wide area. Natural characteristic of Aspen is to sprout roots and grow into new stem which enables it to spread a few feet every year. Researchers, led by Jeffery Ross-Ibarra of the University of California found the tree a decade ago during a routine survey of local plant life.  
1. Pando
Pando
Pando is the clonal colony of a single male Quaking Aspen. It is located in Fishlake National Forest, Utah, United States is estimated to be 80,000 years old and covers around 107 acres of land and consists of 47,000 stems with an average age of 130 years each stem. The stems continually die and are renewed by its roots. It has a massive underground root system and with a weight of 6 million kilograms making it one of the heaviest and massive known living organism of the world. In 2005 United States Postal Service made a stamp in the commemoration of the Aspen and called it as one of the forty “Wonders of America”. Pando was discovered by Burton V. Barnes of the University of Michigan in the 1970s. Barnes on the basis of his extensive research proposed that described Pando as a single organism. Building on Barnes’s earlier work, Michael Grant of University of Colorado re-examined Pando and claimed it to be the most massive organism of the world in 1992.

These were some known living or dead oldest trees in the world today. Probably there are more ancient living trees in the forests which are being cut down in the name of modernization. We need to wake up and save these precious gifts and these evidents of our future generations and civilizations. Save trees, Save mankind

Popular Posts

Sweden News latest RSS headlines - Big News Network.com

Ikea Orlando

Ikea Orlando
Opening Day

Lucia Swedish Tradition

Lucia Swedish Tradition
Lucia

Winter Park, FL

Winter Park, FL
Winter Park Farmer's Market